When intent and outcome are more malicious, we encounter disinformation.

Disinformation is a subset of misinformation that is “…shared with knowledge of its falsity and thus intention to deceive or otherwise do harm. It is a deliberate, intentional lie.” People often produce disinformation for economic or political gain.

Malinformation is when true but private information is deliberately shared for personal or corporate interest – for example, “revenge porn.” This involves private information (such as photographs) being recontextualized and made public.

References Claire Wardle, “Journalism and the New Information Ecosystem: Responsibilities and Challenges” in Fake News: Understanding Media and Misinformation in the Digital Age, ed. Melissa Zimdars and Kembrew McLeod (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2020), 71-73. Background theme image from Shutterstock.

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